The ancient times of the Chapada Diamantina begin with its geology that presents rocks with age over 1 billion of years, revealing the memory of the phenomenon of the Pangaea. They are also revealed in the memory of native communities, remainders of aboriginal tribes, black communities descendants of slaves, remainders of quilombos. As well, thoses ancient times exist through traditional communities, diamond diggers, among others different cultures, with its rites and lively stories.
The district of palmeiras emancipated of Lençois in 1890, which emancipated of Santa Isabel of Paraguaçu/Mucugê in 1856, which emancipated of Minas de Rio de Contas, the oldest town in the Chapada Diamantina, in 1847. With its architecture of the XIX century, palmeiras has as patron saint ‘Bom Jesus’ (Good Jesus). The Capao Valley has as patron saint ‘Saint Sebastião’ (Saint Sebastian), commemorated in the day 19 of January with popular parties, and artistic and cultural presentations in the valley.
The city of palmeiras is located within the Chapada Diamantina in the Region of Lavras, stucked between the towns of Lençois, Mucugê, Seabra, and Iraquara. Part of its territory is included in the "Polígono das Secas" ("Polygon of the Droughts") and another part, such as the towns of Campo de São João, Cercado, Conceição, Rio Grande, and the district of Caeté-Açú, define the turn of the National Park of the Chapada Diamantina, created by decree the 17/09/1985. The municipal headquarters present the following geographic position: 12º 30' 50' ' of 39 South latitude and 41º 34 ' 39'' of longitude W. 438 km away from Salvador, and 355 km in straight-line.